Introduction to Switches, Types and Features

Switches are networking devices operating at layer 2 or a data link layer of the OSI model. They connect devices in a network and use packet switching to send, receive or forward data packets or data frames over the network.

A switch has many ports, to which computers are plugged in. When a data frame arrives at any port of a network switch, it examines the destination address, performs necessary checks and sends the frame to the corresponding device(s).It supports unicast, multicast as well as broadcast communications.


  1. A switch operates in the layer 2, i.e. data link layer of the OSI model.
  2. It is an intelligent network device that can be conceived as a multiport network bridge.
  3. It uses MAC addresses (addresses of medium access control sublayer) to send data packets to selected destination ports.
  4. It uses packet switching technique to receive and forward data packets from the source to the destination device.
  5. It is supports unicast (one-to-one), multicast (one-to-many) and broadcast (one-to-all) communications.
  6. Transmission mode is full duplex, i.e. communication in the channel occurs in both the directions at the same time. Due to this, collisions do not occur.
  7. Switches are active devices, equipped with network software and network management capabilities.
  8. Switches can perform some error checking before forwarding data to the destined port.
  9. The number of ports is higher – 24/48.

Types of Switches

  • 1. Unmanaged Switch − These are inexpensive switches commonly used in home networks and small businesses. They can be set up by simply plugging in to the network, after which they instantly start operating. When more devices needs to be added, more switches are simply added by this plug and play method. They are referred to as u managed since they do not require to be configured or monitored.

  • 2. Managed Switch − These are costly switches that are used in organisations with large and complex networks, since they can be customized to augment the functionalities of a standard switch. The augmented features may be QoS (Quality of Service) like higher security levels, better precision control and complete network management. Despite their cost, they are preferred in growing organizations due to their scalability and flexibility. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is used for configuring managed switches.

  • 3. LAN Switch − Local Area Network (LAN) switches connects devices in the internal LAN of an organization. They are also referred as Ethernet switches or data switches. These switches are particularly helpful in reducing network congestion or bottlenecks. They allocate bandwidth in a manner so that there is no overlapping of data packets in a network.

  • 4. PoE Switch − Power over Ethernet (PoE) switches are used in PoE Gogabit Ethernets. PoE technology combine data and power transmission over the same cable so that devices connected to it can receive both electricity as well as data over the same line. PoE switches offer greater flexibility and simplifies the cabling connections

MS Office


Microsoft Office is a suite of desktop productivity applications that is designed specifically by Microsoft for business use. It is a proprietary product of Microsoft Corporation and was first released in 1990. For decades, MS Office has been a dominant model in delivering modern office-related document-handling software environments.


  1.  Office 95
  2. Office 97
  3. Office 2000
  4. Office xp
  5. Office 2003
  6. Office 2007
  7. Office 2010
  8. Office 2013
  9. Office 2016
  10. Office 2021
  11. Office 365

Difference between Microsoft office and 365

Microsoft Office:-

.It is an desktop based version. The license key can we use by physically or directly we can download the program through Microsoft website. It contains one time purchase for life long usage. If new version arrives need to update then we have purchase it. If the user want to use with another system then they have to purchase additionally.  

Microsoft 365:-

It is an web based version and subscription product which we have to pay monthly or annually periods. The program updates which are includes with this packages, so no need to worry automatically it will get updated. 

Microsoft 365 Personal – The subscription can be used up to 5 devices even with Mac or PC with all core programs. Subscription also receives additional One drive storage of 1TB and 60mins skype free on every month.

Microsoft 365 Family – The subscription can be used up to 5 people. It includes the personal plan and additional 6TB storage. 

Microsoft 365 Business – Plan includes office packs and additional accessible features like Microsoft teams and advanced security protections.


To learn more about MS office functions, tips, formulas. Please click here to read more with articles and studies. 

Windows Os - Features and Versions

It was released for both home computing and professional functions of Windows on 10 November 1983. Later, it was released on many versions of Windows as well as the current version, Windows 10.

In 1993, the first business-oriented version of Windows was released, which is known as Windows NT 3.1. Then it introduced the next versions, Windows 3.54/0, and Windows 2000. When the XP Windows was released by Microsoft in 2001, the company designed its various versions for a personal and business environment. It was designed based on standard x86 hardware, like Intel and AMD processor. Accordingly, it can run on different brands of hardware, such as HP, Dell, and Sony computers, including home-built PCs.

Editions of Windows

Microsoft has produced several editions of Windows, starting with Windows XP. These versions have the same core operating system, but some versions included advance features with an additional cost. There are two most common editions of Windows:

  • Windows Home
  • Windows Professional

Windows Home

Windows Home is basic edition of Windows. It offers all the fundamental functions of Windows, such as browsing the web, connecting to the Internet, playing video games, using office software, watching videos. Furthermore, it is less expensive and comes pre-installed with many new computers.

Windows Professional

Windows Professional is also known as Window Pro or win Pro. It is an enhanced edition of Windows, which is beneficial for power users and small to medium-size businesses. It contains all features of Windows Home as well as the following:

  • Remote Desktop: Windows Professional editions allow users to create a remote desktop connection. It provides users the option to connect with another computer remotely, including share the control of its mouse, keyboard, and view display. It is mainly accessed with the help of port 3389. Additionally, we can also use the TeamViewer or VNC application to create a remote desktop connection.
  • Trusted Boot: It provides security as encrypting to the boot loader and protects the computer from rootkits (Collection of software tools that allow users to enter another computer through an unauthorized way known as rootkits).
  • Bitlocker: It allows users to encrypt a storage drive by using AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) algorithm. This feature is present in Windows 7, and Windows Vista (Only ultimate and Enterprise versions), including Windows Server 2008.

Business laptops or computers mainly use the Bitlocker feature to protect their data on the computer. As if your computer has been stolen, it is very difficult to break the Bitlocker password. It can be unlocked by entering the correct password only. Furthermore, if you forget your Bitlocker password, it cannot be retrieved.

  • Windows Sandbox: A sandbox is located on a computer, network, or an online service enables users to experiment or test computer security without interrupting the system.
  • Hyper-V: It stands for a hypervisor, and developed by Microsoft Corporation on 26 June 2008. It is also called Windows Server Virtualization. Hyper-V is used for virtualization of x86-64 servers, running virtual machines and third party software like VirtualBox.
  • Group policy management: An admin can specify group policies in an organization to manage different Windows users.
  • It provides support for the systems that have more than 128 GB of RAM.
  • Furthermore, it also offers more Windows update installation options as well as flexible scheduling and postponement around 34 days.

Windows 10

On 29 July 2015, Microsoft introduced Windows 10. It was released with some new features such as switching between a keyboard and mouse mode and a tablet mode, which was beneficial for the users who use computers like surface Pro 3 with a detachable keyboard. It was designed for all Windows platforms across several devices, as well as Windows tablets and Phones, including common applications.


Startup Menu

It's what Windows 8 detractors were clamoring for, and Microsoft brought back the Start Menu with Windows 10. Now, when you click on the Start button at the bottom left of the screen, you get two panels side by side, with the left column showing pinned, recently used, and most-used apps. You also get a power button at the top for options such as Hibernate, Standby and Shutdown, and an all apps option a la Windows 8. The right column features a selection of live tiles that you can customize, resize and reorganize. Not only that, but the search field at the bottom will look up related Internet results in addition to programs and files (as it did on Windows 7.


Windows 10 brings Microsoft's voice-controlled digital assistant Cortana to desktop computers, making it easier for you to interact with your device without lifting a finger. You can search your hard drive for specific files, pull up photos from specific dates, or launch PowerPoint presentations just by telling your PC to do so. You can even get Cortana to send an email while you're working on a spreadsheet, making multi-tasking that much easier.


Now you can play any Xbox One game on your PC or tablet with the Xbox app for Windows 10. The operating system supports Xbox game streaming (through your home network) with improved speed and graphics performance thanks to DirectX 12 support. The app also lets you record, edit and share your fragging victories with the Game DVR feature, which lets you grab the previous 30 seconds of your game so you don't miss unexpected wins. You can also join your friends in games across Windows 10 or the Xbox platforms, and see your friends' activity via Xbox Live.

Action Center

Windows 10 provides a new way to look at all your notifications in one place. The Action Center collects alerts from your device from all your apps, similar to the notifications drawers in iOS and Android. Depending on the app, you can also respond or react from this panel itself, with each notification expanding to show more actions. The Action Center also offers a quick way to toggle connectivity options and other settings, such as display brightness and contrast.


A new Multiple Desktops feature lets you run another set of windows as if on another screen, but without the physical monitor. This is similar to Apple's Spaces feature on OS X, and helps you manage your multitude of open windows and apps. Instead of having multiple windows open on top of each other on one desktop, you can set up a whole other virtual desktop for those programs to reside in. Set up one specifically for home and leave your apps such as Amazon open, and create another desktop for work on which you keep Word, Excel and Internet Explorer open. It's easy to keep track of your open apps on Windows 10. You can either hit the new Task View button on the taskbar or swipe in from the left edge of the screen to pull up a one-page view of all your open apps and files. It's not much different from using the Alt-Tab combination shortcut on your keyboard, but this presents a convenient way for touch-oriented users to get an overview of what's running.

Startup Menu

Instead of having two apps to control your device settings in Control Panel and PC settings, Microsoft makes things less confusing by bringing them together in one. You can manage your device from one place instead of hunting for a specific menu.

Windows 11

Windows 11 came out on October 5. Microsoft says that newer PCs will get it earlier than older PCs, and the staged rollout will last until mid-2022. Microsoft has updated Windows 11 with a handful of new features including improvements to the Taskbar such as weather info and muting your mic via the System Tray, support for Android apps, and updated Notepad and Media Player apps. We’ve updated this review to include those features. Microsoft is back with a new version of Windows, featuring an updated design, new features, and a renewed interest in modernizing the desktop UX, at the cost of some classic Windows functionality. 

Compatibility: Generally, any PC released from 2018 onwards should be fully compatible with Windows 11.

Highlights: Brand new design and interface Simplified Start menu and Taskbar Improved Microsoft Store Great productivity enhancements


Startup Menu

Of all the new Windows 11 features, the new launcher-style floating Start Menu is the most distinctive part of Microsoft’s next-gen desktop OS. Unlike the traditional Start Menu, the new Start — as Microsoft is calling it — sits right at the center of the taskbar. It has a flyout design with pinned and recommended apps accompanying each other. So far in my usage, the recommendations are pretty good. It quickly offers me access to documents, photos, and apps I have recently installed.

New Action center

Second favorite feature of Windows 11 is the revamped Action Center. It follows a design language that we have seen on mobile OSes, and I quite like this mobile-first approach to important system toggles. You can now simply click on the unified “ Wi-Fi , volume and brightness” button to open the new Action Center. It packs all the necessary controls, including brightness and volume sliders. You can able to add whatever you like with quick action option.

New style file explorer

The File Explorer on Windows has been a major point of contention among Windows users. That said, it indeed needed a modern makeover, and I am happy to report that the new File Explorer is functional and has all the features you need. You now have colorful new icons, a new Context menu, and a Command bar up top, which replaces the existing Ribbon menu bar.

Restructuring with setting app

After the launch of Windows 10, Microsoft has, for the first time, completely revamped the Settings app. It’s built from scratch, following a mobile-driven design that plays well with both desktops and tablets. The Settings page has been neatly categorized with menus and sub-menus, along with a static menu pane at the left. You also have breadcrumbs for easy navigation and expandable settings options for improved clarity.

New Multitasking

Snapping was already great on Windows 10, but Microsoft has taken it a notch further with easier Snap Assist. This new feature is called Snap Layouts. Now, when you hover your mouse pointer over a window’s maximize button, you will find various layouts for how you want to position the window. You can also invoke the snap layout option with the “Win + Z” Windows keyboard shortcut. If you use a large monitor, this will help maximize your productivity.

Voice Typing

Voice Typing is among my favorite Windows 11 features as it makes typing much easier and acts as a great accessibility tool. You just need to press the Windows 11 keyboard shortcut “Win + H“, and you can dictate whatever you want to write. I use Google voice typing on my Android device, and it’s fairly accurate, but I was surprised to find that Microsoft has indeed improved its voice recognition algorithm, and it works wonderfully well. It even supports auto punctuation which is just awesome. So go ahead

OS Definition

An operating system is a software programme required to manage and operate a computing device like smartphones, tablets, computers, supercomputers, web servers, cars, network towers, smartwatches, etc. It is the operating system that eliminates the need to know coding language to interact with computing devices. It is a layer of graphical user interface (GUI), which acts as a platform between the user and the computer hardware. Moreover, the operating system manages the software side of a computer and controls programs execution.

Type of OS


Windows is a graphical operating system developed by Microsoft. It allows users to view and store files, run the software, play games, watch videos, and provides a way to connect to the internet. It was released for both home computing and professional works.


It is a series of graphical operating systems developed by Apple Inc. It is the successor to Mac OS X, and it is the operating system that powers Apple’s Mac family of computers.


Linux is built around the Linux kernel and is a free and open-source software operating system. It is one of the most popular operating systems for servers and embedded devices. It is also used by millions of desktop users around the world.



Another example of a mobile operating system developed by Apple Inc. iOs is the successor to iPhone OS. It is an operating system that powers the iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch products.


Internet security consists of a range of security tactics for protecting activities and transactions conducted online over the internet. These tactics are meant to safeguard users from threats such as hacking into computer systems, email addresses, or websites; malicious software that can infect and inherently damage systems; and identity theft by hackers who steal personal data such as bank account information and credit card numbers. Internet security is a specific aspect of broader concepts such as cybersecurity and computer security, being focused on the specific threats and vulnerabilities of online access and use of the internet.

In today’s digital landscape, many of our daily activities rely on the internet. Various forms of communication, entertainment, and financial and work-related tasks are accomplished online. This means that tons of data and sensitive information are constantly being shared over the internet. The internet is mostly private and secure, but it can also be an insecure channel for exchanging information. With a high risk of intrusion by hackers and cybercriminals, internet security is a top priority for individuals and businesses alike.

Types of Network Threats

Malware: Short for “malicious software,” malware comes in several forms, including computer viruses, worms, Trojans, and dishonest spyware.


Computer worm: A computer worm is a software program that copies itself from one computer to the next. It does not require human interaction to create these copies and can spread rapidly and in great volume.


Spam: Spam refers to unwanted messages in your email inbox. In some cases, spam can simply include junk mail that advertises goods or services you aren’t interested in. These are usually considered harmless, but some can include links that will install malicious software on your computer if they’re clicked on.


Phishing: Phishing scams are created by cybercriminals attempting to solicit private or sensitive information. They can pose as your bank or web service and lure you into clicking links to verify details like account information or passwords.


Botnet: A botnet is a network of private computers that have been compromised. Infected with malicious software, these computers are controlled by a single user and are often prompted to engage in nefarious activities, such as sending spam messages or denial-of-service (DoS) attacks.

Internet Security Solutions

There are several internet security products and solutions available to help keep your internet usage secure. These include:
Antivirus software products, which protect devices from attacks by detecting and eliminating viruses.
Password managers, which help store and organize passwords through encryption.
Endpoint security suites, which include a more comprehensive internet security approach with firewalls, antivirus, anti-spyware, and more.
Choosing the right package of products is important for securing your data across the internet. To know more about we have enclosed all device security details with relevant categories.

Basics of Networking

A computer network comprises two or more computers that are connected either by cables (wired) or WiFi (wireless) with the purpose of transmitting, exchanging, or sharing data and resources. You build a computer network using hardware (e.g., routers, switches, access points, and cables) and software (e.g., operating systems or business applications).

Geographic location often defines a computer network. For example, a LAN (local area network) connects computers in a defined physical space, like an office building, whereas a WAN (wide area network) can connect computers across continents. The internet is the largest example of a WAN, connecting billions of computers worldwide.

You can further define a computer network by the protocols it uses to communicate, the physical arrangement of its components, how it controls traffic, and its purpose.

Computer networks enable communication for every business, entertainment, and research purpose. The internet, online search, email, audio and video sharing, online commerce, live-streaming, and social networks all exist because of computer networks.

The internet is actually a network of networks that connects billions of digital devices worldwide. Standard protocols allow communication between these devices. Those protocols include hypertext transfer protocol (the ‘http’ in front of all website addresses). Internet protocol (or IP addresses) are the unique identifying numbers required of every device that accesses the internet. IP addresses are comparable to your mailing address, providing unique location information so that information can be delivered correctly.

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and Network Service Providers (NSPs) provide the infrastructure that allows the transmission of packets of data or information over the internet. Every bit of information sent over the internet doesn’t go to every device connected to the internet. It’s the combination of protocols and infrastructure that tells information exactly where to go.

To know more about please click here.

Types of Network









How software performing in Laptops, Desktops etc

Software is a set of instructions, data or programs used to operate computers and execute specific tasks. It is the opposite of hardware, which describes the physical aspects of a computer. Software is a generic term used to refer to applications and programs that run on a device. It can be thought of as the variable part of a computer, while hardware is the invariable part.

The two main categories of software. 

  • Application Software – That fulfills a specific need or performs tasks. 
  • System software – Designed to run a computer’s hardware and provides a platform for applications to run on top of.

Other types of software include programming software, which provides the programming tools software developers needs middle which sits between system software and applications; and driver software, which operates computer devices and peripherals.

Early software was written for specific computers and sold with the hardware it ran on. In the 1980s, software began to be sold on floppy disks, and later on CDs and DVDs. Today, most software is purchased and directly downloaded over the internet. Software can be found on vendor websites.

How software performing in Laptops, Desktops etc

Software is a set of instructions, data or programs used to operate computers and execute specific tasks. It is the opposite of hardware, which describes the physical aspects of a computer. Software is a generic term used to refer to applications and programs that run on a device. It can be thought of as the variable part of a computer, while hardware is the invariable part.

The two main categories of software. 

  • Application software – That fulfills a specific need or performs tasks. 
  • System software – Designed to run a computer’s hardware and provides a platform for applications to run on top of.

Other types of software include programming software, which provides the programming tools software developers needs middle which sits between system software and applications; and driver software, which operates computer devices and peripherals.

Early software was written for specific computers and sold with the hardware it ran on. In the 1980s, software began to be sold on floppy disks, and later on CDs and DVDs. Today, most software is purchased and directly downloaded over the internet. Software can be found on vendor websites.